The Executive & Legislative Process


Miriam Budiardjo (Bab 8 & 9 ):

Austin Ranney ; Governing An Introduction to Political Science (chapter 12)

• Executive is the star (core) of the government
• Executive : head of non legislative and non judicial agencies who are elected or appointed for limited terms to supervise the making and execution of government policies.
• Executive in modern governments: the presidents, prime ministers, monarchs, dictator, juntas
• Two fundamental executive functions: 1) chief of state = the official who acts as the government formal head and spokesperson. 2) head of government = the official who leads and supervises the officers and agencies that initiate and enforce the government’s policies.
• Executive as Chief of State:
1. Hereditary Monarchs= person who inherit their positions as chiefs of state. Direct:British, Belgian, Scandinavian, Japanese emperor. Indirect: British Commonwealth, Australia Canada, New Zeland
2. Elected Monarchs=leaving the monarchs only ceremonial functions of a chief of state. Austria, Germany, Iceland, India, Italy,Turkey
3. Directly Elected Heads of Government=directly elected the chief of executive as well as head of government, such as; USA,Argentina,Brazil, Colombia,Costa Rica, Cyprus,Ecuador, Finland, France, Venezuela
4. Collegial Executive: Swiss= seven member federal council, selected every four years by the two houses of national parliament meeting in joint session

• Executive as Head of Government (President)
1. President and Prime Ministers
US Presidential roles: chief executive (diplomat, commander, emergency leader, party leader, legislator) and Chief of State
2. Prim e minister ( ministry, cabinet)

• Politics involves conflict: some form of struggle among people trying to achieve different goals & satisfy opposing interests
• Conflicts is an essential and inescapable consequence of the fact that people live together in societies and not in isolation from another
• Political interest: something of value to an person or group to be gained or lost y what government does or does not to do
• Politics is conflict among individuals and groups over the formation of public policy
• Tactics of political action: a)lobbying= direct efforts by representatives of pressure groups to influence public officials to act as the group wish—hearing—techniques of persuasion; b) working on political parties; c) mass propaganda; d) litigation; e) demonstration (protest groups by picketing, mass marching, chanting slogans, blocking road, occupying public buildings); f) strikes & boycott (collective work stoppage by industrial workers for economic goals & refusal by group to deal with another private group/public agency to achieve economic/political goals); g) nonviolent civil disobedience; h) violence
• Characteristics of political conflict: a) multiplicity (economic class, occupation, gender, ethnicity, religion, morality, ideology, quality of life); b) opposition (seeking conflicting goals); c) overlapping membership; d) imperfect mobilization

Rob Hague, et.all : Comparative Government and Politics (chapter 1= meeting 1st)

• Definition of politics: a process whereby a group of people whos opinions interest are initially divergent, reach collective decisions which are generally accepted as a binding on the group and enforces as a common policy
a. collective activity, involving people
b. diversity of views, goals, means
c. reconciling such differences by discussion &persuasion
d. authoratitative policies
• Government is institutionalized politics = consists of institutions responsible for making collective decision for society
• State is a political community formed by a territorially- defined population which is subject to one government
• Sovereignty: ultimate source of authority in society. Internal = refers to law making power within a territory; external= international recognition of the sovereign’s jurisdiction over its territory
• A nation is a people inhabiting a defined territory which seeks political expression of its share identity usually a claim to statehood. Nationalism= the key ideology self determination
• Power is a currency of politics; is the capacity to produce intended effects
• Authority is the right to rule, right to act : a legitimate is based on authority
• Comparison:
A. Democratic vs authoritarian states
Authoritarian regimes: political system with limited, not responsible, political pluralism, without elaborate and guiding ideology…..a leader/ a small group exercises power within formally ill –defined limits
Totalitarian regimes: share the absence of pluralism, total control

B. Consolidated vs Transitional Stated
A consolidated stated provide accepted framework for political competition, governing institutions are well-developed, predictable
Transitional States: seeking to establish a new form of government

C. Develop vs Developing Worlds
Traditional developed countries =industrial societies: USA, Japan
Newly Industrial countries= manufacturing capability,higher living standars :South Korea,Mexico
OPEC Countries: Kuwait, Saudi A
Middle Income; Egypt
Least Developed: Niger
Austin Ranney: Chapter 11. The Legislative Process
• Presidential and Parliamentary democracies
• Presidential democracy: principle of division of government power among coequal legislative and judicial branches
• Parliamentary system: government organized according to the principle of fusion of power
• Separation of power in Presidential democracies: separation of personnel, check and balances
• Fusion of power in parliamentary democracies: overlap of personnel, formal supremacy of parliament
• Functions of legislatures: statute making; constitution making & amending; electoral functions; financial functions, quasi-executive functions; quasi-judicial functions; investigation functions; informational functions
• Structure and Procedures of legislatures: number of houses; handling bills;

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