Miriam Budiardjo (Bab 1 & 2)
• Memahami konsep pokok politik: Negara, kekuasaan, pengambilan keputusan, kebijaksanaan, pembagian /alokasi
• Bidang Ilmu Politik: teori politik (sejarah perkembangan ide/teori ), lembaga politik (konstitusi,pemerintah nasional &local,fungsi ekonomi social & pemerintah,perbandingan lembaga politik); partai (golongan, partisipasi, pendapat umum);hubungan internasional (politik internasional,organisai intl & hukum internasional)
• Konsep politik:
A. Filsafat POlitik:ratio, universe ,alam, politik, asal usul lahirnya norma
Teori Politik Sistematis: penerapan norma dlm kegiatan politik
Ideologi Politik: himpunan nilai,ide sbg dasar tingkah laku politiknya
• Masyarakat, nilai yang ada: kekuasaan, pendidikan, kekayaan,kesehatan,ketrampilan, kasih sayang, kejujuran, keseganan
• Negara,tugas: mengendalikan/mengatur kekuasaaan social mengorganisir kegiatan manusia ke tujuan masya.
• Sifat Negara: memaksa,monopoli, mencakup semua
• Unsur Negara: wilayah, penduduk,pemerintah, kedaulatan
• Fungsi Negara: law & order, prosperity, security, justice

Austin Ranney ; Governing An Introduction to Political Science (Chapter 1)

• Politics is the process of making government policies
• Politics involves conflict: some form of struggle among people trying to achieve different goals & satisfy opposing interests
• Conflicts is an essential and inescapable consequence of the fact that people live together in societies and not in isolation from another
• Political interest: something of value to an person or group to be gained or lost y what government does or does not to do
• Politics is conflict among individuals and groups over the formation of public policy
• Tactics of political action: a)lobbying= direct efforts by representatives of pressure groups to influence public officials to act as the group wish—hearing—techniques of persuasion; b) working on political parties; c) mass propaganda; d) litigation; e) demonstration (protest groups by picketing, mass marching, chanting slogans, blocking road, occupying public buildings); f) strikes & boycott (collective work stoppage by industrial workers for economic goals & refusal by group to deal with another private group/public agency to achieve economic/political goals); g) nonviolent civil disobedience; h) violence
• Characteristics of political conflict: a) multiplicity (economic class, occupation, gender, ethnicity, religion, morality, ideology, quality of life); b) opposition (seeking conflicting goals); c) overlapping membership; d) imperfect mobilization

Rob Hague, et.all : Comparative Government and Politics (Chapter 1)

• Definition of politics: a process whereby a group of people whos opinions interest are initially divergent, reach collective decisions which are generally accepted as a binding on the group and enforces as a common policy
a. collective activity, involving people
b. diversity of views, goals, means
c. reconciling such differences by discussion &persuasion
d. authoratitative policies
• Government is an institutionalized politics = consists of institutions responsible for making collective decision for society
• State is a political community formed by a territorially- defined population which is subject to one government
• Sovereignty: ultimate source of authority in society. Internal = refers to law making power within a territory; external= international recognition of the sovereign’s jurisdiction over its territory
• A nation is a people inhabiting a defined territory which seeks political expression of its share identity usually a claim to statehood. Nationalism= the key ideology self determination
• Power is a currency of politics; is the capacity to produce intended effects
• Authority is the right to rule, right to act : a legitimate is based on authority
• Comparison:
A. Democratic vs authoritarian states
Authoritarian regimes: political system with limited, not responsible, political pluralism, without elaborate and guiding ideology…..a leader/ a small group exercises power within formally ill –defined limits
Totalitarian regimes: share the absence of pluralism, total control

B. Consolidated vs Transitional Stated
A consolidated stated provide accepted framework for political competition, governing institutions are well-developed, predictable
Transitional States: seeking to establish a new form of government

C. Develop vs Developing Worlds
Traditional developed countries =industrial societies: USA, Japan
Newly Industrial countries= manufacturing capability,higher living standars :South Korea,Mexico
OPEC Countries: Kuwait, Saudi A
Middle Income; Egypt
Least Developed: Niger

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